- Product Code: XNS126
- Availability: In Stock
CDP-Choline or Citicoline is most commonly used to improve cognitive functions such as attention, memory and focus. The most dominant benefit of CDP-choline is memory improvement. CDP-Choline is found in the tissue of humans and animals, especially in organs. CDP-Choline plays an important role in the generation of choline containing phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine), which are a major component of biological membranes and can be found in a lot of different foods.
Many clinical trials concluded with evidence that cognitive deficits ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia were were significantly improved with CDP-Choline . Most trials were carried out in cycles of 21-30 days with a an interval of 21 days.
CDP-Choline separates into choline and cytidine which is a molecule involved in coding, decoding and expression of genes. Once cytidine reaches the brain it is converted into Uridine. This is unique to CDP-Choline compared to other choline supplements. Uridine is used by the brain to synthesize a class of phospholipids called phosphatidylcholine that, apart from different possible health benefits, are used by the brain when short in choline. Besides this, uridine is used as an antidepressant since a few studies on rats suggest beneficial effects in treating depression .
An opinion by Richard J. Wurtman at the department of cognitive sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) states that a combination of Uridine with omega-3 fatty acid and choline can affect synapse formation . In a study on animals, it was shown that this combination was able to develop increased levels of brain phosphatides and of proteins that are concentrated within synaptic membranes, improved cognition and enhanced neurotransmitter release.
Choline increases levels of dopamine receptors . Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the reward system of the brain. The prospect of being rewarded increases levels of dopamine in the brain. Cocaine or other addictive substances cause dopamine to be released and at the same time blocks neurons from re-uptaking released dopamine. Long-term abuse of cocaine evidently causes alterations of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrines. For this reason CDP-Choline was researched for its potential in treating addiction . In a self-report survey with people that were addicted to cocaine, most reported to have less desire for the euphoric feeling that cocaine causes, after supplementing CDP-Choline for a few weeks.
The views on the efficacy of CDP-Choline vary but most will compare its nootropic potential to that of Alpha-GPC and Piracetam. Since Alpha-GPC also affects muscle growth and Piracetam may not be legally purchased in all countries, CDP-Choline is preferred if the intend is to only improve cognitive functions.
Many nootropics consumers take choline sources like CDP-Choline, Acetylcholine along with cognitive enhancing supplements. Many racetams either decrease choline levels or adversely affect choline uptake in the brain which noticeably decreases efficacy of the racetams. It can be assumed that many complaints about inefficacy of nootropics, specifically racetams, may be linked to insufficient presence of choline while supplementing nootropics. Choline sources are therefore found in a lot of mind boosting nootropic stacks.
For people above the age of 45 choline is generally an advisable supplement to benefit from its neuroprotective effects since memory, attention and focus start to decrease very slowly.
- Chemical Name
- [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-amino-2-oxopyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl] 2-(trimethylazaniumyl)ethyl phosphate
- Molecular Formula
- Molecular Weight
- 488.327 g/mol
- EC Number
- Memory improvement
- Attention improvement
- Focus improvement
- Visual improvement
- Mood improvement
- Dopamine increase
In clinical trials the average dose was 1000mg per day. Bearing in mind that clinical trials often use higher doses to check for adverse effects of substances, for regular usage a dose of 200mg to 400mg per day should be effective for most individuals.
Choline is very often stacked with racetams. Mostly because all racetams affect choline or acetylcholine burning in the brain in some way. Aniracetam for example is a compound that is used to improve the mind but releases acetylcholine. As with most racetams, a choline source is therefore important to maintain the right balance to gain optimum results.
CDP-Choline is considered safe for long-term usage. Doses as high as 2000mg per day have been approved of clinically. The most common side effects include light stomach distress and diarrhea, although these side effects diminish over time.
Supplementing too much choline will cause symptoms including anxiety, noticeable fatigue, memory deficiency, muscle weakness, brain fog, lack of concentration and motivation. If these side effects occur while supplementing any choline, reduce the dosage significantly and observe which dose works well.
Studies have shown to reduce blood pressure in some elderly individuals although further studies would be needed to confirm these effects.
 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15846601
 - http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/4/1701/htm
 - https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-nutr-080508-141059
 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1908237/
 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10102764